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Saturday, December 20 2014 @ 03:31 PM CST

Why There's Life On Mars

Science

By Babu G. Ranganathan

In the Earth's past there was powerful volcanic activity which could have easily spewed dirt containing microbes into outer space which eventually could have reached Mars. A Newsweek article of September 21, 1998, p.12 mentions exactly this possibility.

"We think there's about 7 million tons of earth soil sitting on Mars", says (evolutionist) Kenneth Nealson. "You have to consider the possibility that if we find life on Mars, it could have come from the Earth" [Weingarten, T., Newsweek, September 21, 1998, p.12]. Furthermore, MIT scientist Dr. Walt Brown (a creationist) in his book In The Beginning points out that during the great Genesis flood, as recorded in the Bible, the fountains of the deep that were let loose could have easily spewed out meteors and meteorites into space that very well may have contained micro-organisms such as bacteria.

In the midst of all the arguments over evolution and intelligent design, it is amazing how many in society, including the very educated, believe that scientists had already created life in the laboratory. No such thing has ever happened.

All that scientists have done is genetically engineer already existing forms of life in the laboratory, and by doing this scientists have been able to produce new forms of life, but they did not produce these new life forms from non-living matter. Even if scientists ever do produce life from non-living matter it will only be through intelligent design or planning so it still wouldn't help support any theory of life originating by chance or evolution.

Even in the case involving synthetic (artificial) life, scientists don't actually create or produce life itself from non-living matter. What scientists do in this case is create (by intelligent design) artificial DNA (genetic instructions and code) which is then implanted into an already existing living cell and, thereby, changing that cell into a new form of life. And, again, even if scientists ever do create a whole living cell from scratch (and not just its DNA) it still would not be by chance but by intelligent design. Synthetic life is just another form of genetic engineering. But God was the first genetic engineer. Remember that always!

If the cell had evolved it would have had to be all at once. A partially evolved cell cannot wait millions of years to become complete because it would be highly unstable and quickly disintegrate in the open environment, especially without the protection of a complete and fully functioning cell membrane.

Although it has been shown that the basic building blocks of life, amino acids, can come into existence by chance, it has never been shown that the various amino acids can come together into a sequence by chance to form protein molecules. If the amino acids are not in the proper sequence the protein molecules will not function! Even the simplest cell is composed of millions of protein molecules.

There is no innate chemical tendency for the various amino acids to bond with one another in a sequence. Any one amino acid can just as easily bond with any other. The only reason at all for why the various amino acids bond with one another in a precise sequence in the cells of our bodies is because they're directed to do so by an already existing sequence of molecules found in our genetic code.

In Nature there are what scientists call right-handed and left-handed amino acids. However, life requires that all proteins be left-handed. So, not only do millions of amino acids have to be in the correct sequence, they also all have to be left-handed. If a right-handed amino acid gets mixed in then the protein molecules won't function. There won't be any life!

Similarly, the nucleic acids in DNA and RNA must be in a precise sequence. The sugar molecules that make-up the various nucleic acids in DNA and RNA must be right-handed. If a nucleic acid with a left-handed sugar molecule gets into the mix then nothing will work.

The cell seems to be irreducibly complex. For example, without DNA there can be no RNA, and without RNA there can be no DNA. And without either DNA or RNA there can be no proteins, and without proteins there can be no DNA or RNA. They're all mutually dependent upon each other for existence! It could not have gradually evolved! Evolutionists generally believe that it took one billion years for the first life form or cell to have evolved. That belief, although still taught as gospel in many elementary and secondary schools, cannot be sustained by modern science.

Of course, once there is a complete and living cell then the genetic program and biological mechanisms exist to direct the formation of more cells with their own genetic programs and biological mechanisms. The question is how did life come about when there was no directing mechanism.

If humans must use intelligence to perform genetic engineering, to meaningfully manipulate the genetic code, then what does that say about the origin of the genetic code itself!

The great British scientist Sir Frederick Hoyle has said that the probability of the sequence of molecules in the simplest cell coming into existence by chance is equivalent to a tornado going through a junk yard of airplane parts and assembling a 747 Jumbo Jet!

We tend to judge something as being simple or complex by its size. So many of us assume that because the cell is microscopic in size that it must be simple. Not so! Size is relative, but not complexity. If you were as tall as the Empire State building you would probably think that a dictionary is a simple little thing that could have easily come together by chance from an explosion or series of explosions in a printing shop.

Natural laws are adequate to explain how the order in life, the universe, and even a microwave oven operates, but mere undirected natural laws cannot fully explain the origin of such order.

Science cannot prove how life originated since no human observed the origin of life by either chance or design. Observation and detection by the human senses, either directly or indirectly through scientific instruments, is the basis of science and for establishing proof. The issue is which position has better scientific support. Both sides should have the opportunity to present their case.

If some astronauts from Earth discovered figures of persons similar to Mt. Rushmore on an uninhabited planet there would be no way to scientifically prove the carved figures originated by design or by chance processes of erosion. Neither position is science, but scientific arguments may be made to support one or the other.

Many think that natural selection in nature is proof that we had evolved. Natural selection does occur in nature. Natural selection itself does not produce biological variations. Natural selection can only "select" from biological variations that are produced and which have survival value. Natural selection is a passive process in nature. Natural selection is simply another way of saying that if a biological variation occurs which is helpful to an animal or plant's survival then that that variation will be preserved and be passed on. Of course, nature does not do any active or conscious selecting. The term "natural selection" is simply a figure of speech. Also, natural selection only applies once there is life and not before. In other words, natural selection is not involved in any pre-biotic, non-living interactions of chemicals.

Evolutionists believe that random or chance mutations in the genetic code (caused by random environmental forces such as radiation) will produce the favorable evolutionary changes necessary for natural selection to act upon.

However, there is no evidence that random or chance mutations in the genetic code are capable of producing greater biological complexity (vertical evolution) among natural species. Mutations are only capable of producing horizontal evolution (variations within natural species). In any case, most biological variations among natural species are due to new combinations of already existing genes and not mutations.

Considering the enormous complexity of life, it is much more logical to believe that the genetic and biological similarities between all species are due to a common Designer rather than common evolutionary ancestry. It is only logical that the great Designer would design similar functions for similar purposes and different functions for different purposes in all of the various forms of life.

All of this simply means that real science supports faith in God. Science cannot prove that we are here by chance (evolution) or by design (creation). However, the scientific evidence can be used to support one or the other. It is only fair that evidence supporting intelligent design be presented to students alongside of evolutionary theory, especially in public schools which receive funding from taxpayers who are on both sides of the issue. Also, no one is being forced to believe in God or adopt a particular religion so there is no true violation of separation of church and state. As a religion and science writer, I encourage all to read my Internet article "The Natural Limits of Evolution" at my website www.religionscience.com for more in-depth study of the issue.

The author, Babu G. Ranganathan, has his bachelor's degree with concentrations in theology and biology and has been recognized for his writings on religion and science in the 24th edition of Marquis "Who's Who In The East".


© 1999-2009. «PRAVDA.Ru».

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Life on Mars To Be Found in 2018

In 1877, during the great opposition of Mars, astronomers discovered the system of so-called canals on the surface of the red planet. Percival Lowell, a well-known astronomer, set out a version of their artificial origin in his book. The mystery of life on Mars has become one of the most talked-about subjects in the field of space exploration since then.

“The War of the Worlds” written by Herbert Wells in 1898 became the first book about the invasion of extraterrestrial creatures. The creatures came to Earth from Mars, of course, and perceived humans as food. The image of a Martian being became more romantic in 1923 after the publication of Aleksei Tolstoy’s Aelita novel. The book tells of the flight of a Soviet spaceship to Mars. The crew of the spaceship found a highly-developed civilization on the planet, which was declining in the grip of bourgeois reality. The image of the main character of the novel, Aelita, deprived many Soviet schoolchildren of sleep despite social and political absurdity of the book.

Other prominent science fiction writers, such as Ray Bradbury and Kurt Vonnegut, did not leave the Martian issue out of their attention either.

However, it seems that the fairytales about scary Martian creatures will soon become history. ExoMars, a European unmanned scientific mission will begin in 2018 to search for signs of life on the mysterious red planet. The launch of the interplanetary space probe was originally planned for 2011, but was later pushed back to 2018 because of the economic crisis.

NASA cooperates with the European Space Agency in the program. The research station with ExoMars rover will be launched on board the US Atlas booster rocket.

ExoMars will deploy a rover carrying a comprehensive suite of analytical instruments dedicated to exobiology and geology research. Using conventional solar arrays to generate electricity, the rover will be able to travel a few kilometres over the surface of Mars. The vehicle will be capable of operating autonomously by using onboard software and will navigate by using optical sensors. Included in its payload will be a lightweight drilling system, a sampling and handling device, and a set of scientific instruments to search for signs of past or present life on Mars.

The rover will weigh 205 kg, comparable to NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity. Instrumentation will consist of the 10 kg 'Pasteur Payload' and the 'Geophysical Science Package', containing, among other instruments, a 2 meter sub-surface drill.

The ExoMars spacecraft will consist of an orbiter, the carrier module, a high-precision Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) system, and the rover itself with the main scientific payload. The 2018 launch opportunity is actually one of the most favorable in terms of planetary alignment for many years, and that makes it possible to send a very heavy surface mission. After 9 to 10 months of flight, the orbiter with the Carrier and Descent Modules attached will enter Martian orbit. The landing from an orbiter makes it possible to wait for a storm free period and to land with a higher accuracy.

© 1999-2009. «PRAVDA.Ru».


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